Floods most often occur during major storm events that produce large amounts of rain over short periods of time.
There are three scenerios:
- Large amounts of rain over a short period of time where stormwater drainage is insufficent. This is called a flash flood.
Water rise may be sudden and with little warning. Additionally, after periods of drought, the soil can be too dry to sufficently
absorb the water in the short term (due to the lack of cohesion).
- Large volumes of water over an extended period. This type of flooding will occur
over the long term of the storm, and the flooding may continue long after the storm passes. There will oftentimes be a lag
between the event and the flooding as water moves through the hydrologic system. It may even be an event that did not have
heavy rain in your location, but areas upstream experienced significant rainfall.
- Storm-surge flooding from the wind and waves of hurricanes and tropical stroms which result in the accumulation of excessive
amounts of water along the coast. It is a combination of the low pressure of the storm allowing water to rise and the relentless
surf pushing water inland faster than it can escape against the same waves back to deeper water.
While hurricanes are Florida’s most obvious flood producers, it is important to realize that heavy
rains can cause flooding in Florida at any time of the year and at any place. Flooding may result
in the loss of human life and property. Episodes of flooding may be accompanied by contamination
of aquifers and water wells in some areas. Floridians should be aware of “boil-water warnings”
posted in their local news media. It is vitally important that everyone living in Florida be aware
of the potential for flooding and resources available to assist Floridians in dealing with it.
Coastal erosion has both natural causes and causes related to human activities. Gradual coastal erosion results naturally
from fluctuations in sea-level and by longshore drift. Ideally the movement of sand functions like a balanced budget.
Sand is continually removed by longshore currents moving parallel to the shoreline in some areas but it is also
continually replaced by different currents of the same type.
Structures such as piers or sea walls, jetties, and navigational inlets may interrupt the movement of sand as it can
become “trapped” in one place by these types of structures. The currents will, of course, continue to flow, though
depleted of sand trapped elsewhere. With significant amounts of sand trapped in the system, the continuing motion of
currents (now deficient in sand) results in erosion. In this way, human development and construction activities that
result in the unnatural trapping of sand have the potential to result in significant coastal erosion over time.
The most severe coastal erosion can occur over a very short period of time when the state is impacted by hurricanes
and other severe weather systems as a combination of storm surge, flooding, and wind erode the coast.