Inaugural Newsletter Title Bar

Dear friends and customers of the Florida Geological Survey,

Welcome to the first issue of FGS News and Research, a digital quarterly newsletter designed to keep you informed about our research and activities. This inaugural issue was to be released during spring, however logistical challenges caused a delay. We are presently working on the Winter 2013 issue and look forward to delivering it to your inbox next month. It is our sincere hope that you find this newsletter useful and interesting, and that you like the digital format. If you wish to see articles or updates on particular topics, your ideas are welcomed. Please forward this to your co-workers, associates and students so they can subscribe. It is our pleasure to serve you as we achieve our mission “to collect, interpret and provide objective quality geologic information about Florida.”

Best regards,

Jonathan D. Arthur, Ph.D., P.G.
Director and State Geologist
Office of the Florida Geological Survey
Florida Department of Environmental Protection


In This issue Bar

FGS Welcomed to Regulatory Programs   

FGS conducts Bird Sink Dye trace Study   More…

FGS Identifies Nutrient Sources for North Florida Springs    More…

DEP Employee of the Month Awarded to FGS Librarian   More…

Annual Fieldtrip Successful for USF Students   More… 

Offshore Sand Resources Identified along East Coast    More

Atlas of Florida's Beach Sediments Completed      More…

Survey Gizmo Provides FGS with Valuable Customer Feedback   More…

STATEMAP Program Receives Record Funding in its 19th Year  More…

Innovative Tool Developed by FGS to Improve Mapping Productivity  More…

Planning the Future of Geologic Mapping in Florida    More…

STATEMAP: Inverness Region Completed   More…

Deep Coring Project Completed in Broward County    More…

A Mile of Core in Southwest Florida Described   More…



Dear Colleagues:

  We are excited to announce that the Florida Geological Survey (FGS) will move to Regulatory Programs.  Our FGS folks will be a great addition to the Regulatory Programs team as they will be supplying critical scientific support, research and assessments to the various regulatory districts and divisions in a more efficient and consistent fashion.  

DEP Logo

  The FGS is full of talented and committed folks who work hard every day to support the FGS' mission to collect, interpret and provide quality geologic information about Florida.  Jon Arthur will continue to serve as the FGS Director, and will report to Jeff Littlejohn, Deputy Secretary for Regulatory Programs.

  Jeff is excited to welcome Jon and the rest of the FGS to his team, and to better utilize important work they do to protect and conserve Florida's important natural resources.  We are confident that this move will benefit the FGS and Florida's environment by helping DEP become a more effective and efficient agency.  Thanks for helping us make this transition a smooth one.


Herschel T. Vinyard Jr.

DEP Secretary


Bird Sink Dye Trace Study

Florida DEP Banner

MEDIA ADVISORY: Feb. 29, 2012

CONTACT: DEP Press Office, 850.245.2112,



~Test needed to confirm groundwater flow patterns~



Trees provide shade to Bird Sink.

TALLAHASSEE – The Florida Department of Environmental Protection’s (DEP) Florida Geological Survey (FGS) is conducting a dye study in Wakulla and Spring Creek to investigate possible sources of nutrients in the spring systems as part of a long-term groundwater flow study in the region.
The FGS injected the dye, called uranine, in Bird Sink on Feb. 22, 2012. This is a sinking stream or “swallet” located in Leon County at I-10 and State Road 59, near the town of Lloyd. The dye will be transported with currents on an outgoing tide and will be tracked throughout the springs system by FGS staff.
The objective of the dye study is to assess hydrologic conditions within Wakulla and Spring Creek system.  The movement of dyed water will provide scientists and resource managers with information on how water flows within the springs system. 
The injected dye is a harmless, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approved organic solution similar to food coloring agents used in cooking. The dye will eventually degrade by natural processes. It is possible that some of the dye, which is bright green, may appear in surface water features like springs, river runs, sinkholes and in rare occasions, private wells. Local governments have been advised about the dye study.   The dye poses no risk to human health or the environment.  


Contact person/info: Dr. Rodney DeHan


Nitrogen Sourcing Pilot Project Completed


Springs in the Suwannee River basin are among the most contaminated of Florida’s springs with regard to nitrate.  Water discharging from some of the basin’s springs has nitrate concentrations in excess of the 10 mg/L drinking water standard.  In an attempt to restore water quality in these springs, the Department of Environmental Protection is developing Basin Management Action Plansfor the nitrate sources within the basin. 

Springshed Poster

To have a better understanding of the sources of nitrate in two springs, a pilot project at Convict and Royal Springs has been completed. Funded by the Springs Initiative the Florida Geological Survey’s Applied Geoscience Services Section and the Division of Environmental Assessment and Restoration’s Groundwater Section worked together to delineate spring basins and evaluate sources of the nitrate discharging from the Convict and Royal Springs.

The area that provides the flow to the two springs (i.e. springsheds) was estimated using a series of water-table elevation maps.  The nitrate sources were identified by using water-quality and water-chemistry (isotopic) data.  Over 30% of the land in the springsheds is potentially fertilized for agricultural production. Based on available data, 3,887 dairy cows are maintained and 2,133,292 chickens are produced in these two springsheds. Estimates of the relative nitrate loads from synthetic fertilizer and animal sources were determined in the pilot study using isotopes. Intermittent flow has been occurring in both Convict and Royal Springs and both ceased to flow during the project. Nitrate concentrations in Convict Spring exceeded the drinking water standard of 10 mg/L .

Contact person/info: Tom Greenhalgh, P.G.

Click here for a copy of the Convict and Royal Springs report.



Doug Calman, the FGS Employee of the Year in 2011, was awarded DEP Employee of the Month for November.  Doug rejoined DEP’s Florida Geological Survey (DEP/FGS) as Research Librarian in August 2006 after a 26-year hiatus.  He previously held the position from September 1977 to November 1980.  DEP/FGS is extremely fortunate to have this dedicated employee back on board as his work is invaluable to all geological research projects at the FGS.  His services are also available to geoscientists throughout DEP and to the public.  As an integral part of the initial phase in most research proposals or projects, Doug conducts a literature review of published research, including difficult to find “gray” literature.  Doug maintains several reference-databases of importance to specific projects or of special significance to the various responsibility areas of FGS research scientists, an example being a reference database on arsenic in groundwater.   He continuously adds to the FGS publications and geological information available to the public via the internet including improvements to the quality, resolution, and ease of use of this digital material.


In addition to his Research Librarian duties, Doug works closely with the Leon County Schools Advocacy and Resource Center overseeing students who are scanning hard-copy geological sample descriptions; these documents include irreplaceable  and valuable geologic data dating back to the early 20th century.  His willingness to work with challenged students and their teachers gives the students an opportunity to contribute and learn while also making this DEP/FGS data available to the public.

Doug’s dedication to excellence and service is an inspiring example to others; he is well deserving of recognition as the DEP November 2011 Employee of the Month.

On January 28th, 2012 the Florida Geological Survey (FGS) led a field trip to Alum Bluff for students from the University of South Florida (USF) who are taking a course in paleoecology.  This has been an annual event for over a decade.  Peter Harries, a Dean and professor in geology at USF, has been bringing his students to this classic locality, with the help of the FGS, to give the students a hands-on project related to environments that prevailed in Florida millions of years ago.  This year over 20 students participated in the trip even though the conditions at the bluff were less than perfect.  Heavy rains in the upper basin created high water levels in the Apalachicola River obscuring one of the geologic units of interest.

    At Alum Bluff the students practice fundamental geologic activities like outcrop description and measurement, fossil content, and sediment sampling.  This locality is widely noted among geologists as being the tallest natural exposure of geology in Florida and perhaps is one of the most studied geologic exposures in the Southeast.  Over 100 feet of sediment is exposed at Alum Bluff. The strata exposed there range from about 18 million years to several hundred thousand years in age.  Of particular interest to paleontologists are the diverse molluscan faunas that occur in two of the four exposed geologic units at Alum Bluff.


Investigation of Offshore Area Along Florida’s Northeast
and Central East Coast

Ship towing seismic fish

  The Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), formerly known as the U.S. Minerals Management Service (MMS), and the Florida Geological Survey’s Geological Investigations Section have a history of cooperative investigations of Florida’s offshore marine sediment resources.  The current cooperative agreement is an ongoing multi-year study to identify potential sand resources for beach replenishment off Florida’s northeast and central eastern shore.  To date, over 3,000 miles of seismic data, numerous vibracores, as well as seabed and beach samples have been collected, processed and analyzed.  The results of the tasks completed in these investigations are detailed in a series of annual reports to the BOEM.  These reports are available on disk.

  This year’s investigation involved:

· the collection, processing and analysis of approximately 387 miles of seismic data collected in federal waters extending from three to approximately ten miles offshore of Volusia and northern Brevard Counties,

· the collection of 18 seabed samples and the analysis of a total of 21 seabed samples collected from offshore of Volusia County,

·  the analysis of 120 vibracores from offshore Volusia County,

·  the processing of 28 samples collected from northern Brevard County beaches and

·  the analysis of samples collected at approximately one mile interval from both the   beaches of Volusia and northern Brevard Counties.


  The recent investigation, completed in September, 2011, culminated in the analysis of the shoals in federal waters offshore of Volusia County and a compilation of estimations of reserves of beach restoration-quality sand contained in them.
Contact person/info:  Daniel C. Phelps, P.G.


Nearly 2,000 Samples Analyzed to Produce
Atlas of Florida Beach Sediments
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  Sandy beaches are one of Florida’s premier tourist attractions. Because their preservation is vital, problems like beach erosion are a concern. Unfortunately, commercial and residential development along beaches limits protection options in many parts of the state.

Florida east coast beach
The periodic placement of sand along eroding sections of beaches is the preferred method for shoreline protection. Sand added to the beach during this replenishment process should match, in grain size, color, and type, the sand already on the beach. Therefore, a basic understanding of present sand conditions is essential to proper sand matching in connection with beach preservation and replenishment efforts.

  To enhance our knowledge of Florida’s beaches, the Geological Investigations Section of the Florida Department of Environmental Protection’s Office of the Florida Geological Survey received funding from the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The funding was used to create an atlas of beach sediment characteristics for Florida. Sampling locations at intervals of approximately one-mile were established for all Florida beaches along the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico.

  Final reports have been submitted to NOAA regarding the completed sampling of beaches in peninsular Florida, the Keys, the Florida Panhandle and the Big Bend. The reports provide descriptions, photographs and granulometric (grain size) analysis of beach sediments at each location at the time of sampling. Additionally, determination of the samples’ sediment color is included in the reports. While color is considered a less important character , the political and economic consequences of mismatching beach sand color can be considerable.

  Inlets at the mouths of rivers, bays and harbors along Florida’s coast affect the flow patterns of sediments near the shore. These sediments are made up of carbonate and non-carbonate grains. Carbonate grains typically consist of shell fragments while non-carbonate grains are predominantly quartz.   Significant changes in the percentage of carbonate material along the beaches of peninsular Florida have been identified.  Additionally, the study has revealed variations in grain size. Here, a direct correlation was found between carbonate percentage and grain size: where carbonate percentage increases, so does grain size. The carbonate sediments present in the samples were coarser than the non-carbonate sediments.

The general trend, from north to south along the east coast of Florida, shows a steady increase in the percentage of carbonate material toward Government Cut, north of Key Biscayne, in Miami-Dade County. South of Government Cut, there is a substantial and abrupt decline in carbonate material across Key Biscayne to the end of the beaches in the upper Keys.

  In contrast, the beach sand samples collected from the middle and lower Keys in Monroe County were almost exclusively carbonate. The beaches on Little Crawl Key, Munson Island and Key West, however, show carbonate percentages that are significantly lower. These beaches appear to have undergone replenishment activities in which non-native sediments were introduced. Mean grain size is largest in the Spanish Harbor Keys at the geographic boundary between the lower middle and lower Keys.

  The percentage of carbonate material on the southwest coast of Florida varies substantially. The general trend from south to north shows a decrease in the percentage of carbonate material northward. Carbonate percentages broadly peak at the Lee County/Collier County line, in central Lee County and in central Sarasota County.

  The beach sand samples collected from the northwest coast of Florida were almost exclusively non-carbonate. The trend from west to east along the northwest coast of Florida shows a general eastward decline in mean grain size to Cape St. George. From Cape St. George eastward, there is an increase in mean grain size to the beginning of the Big Bend region north of Ochlockonee Bay on the Franklin-Wakulla County line. The mean grain size is greatest on Perdido Key, in western Escambia County, on Santa Rosa Island, in eastern Escambia County, and on the mainland beaches of western Bay County.

  The beaches of Florida’s Big Bend are highly discontinuous. Two regions of beaches, in a more or less natural state, were identified. These are comprised of the beaches of Wakulla County and the beaches in Levy and Dixie Counties. In contrast, the remaining beaches in the Big Bend, lying in Taylor, Dixie, Citrus, Hernando and mainland Pasco Counties, are geographically limited, narrow and probably, at least partially, manmade.

  Knowledge of sediment characteristics, conditions, and trends along Florida beaches is essential to the sand-matching component of periodic sand replacement, the preferred method for protection and restoration of Florida’s shoreline. This in-depth study, made possible by NOAA funding, provides this knowledge.

 Contact person/info:  Daniel C. Phelps, P.G. or  Dr. Christopher Williams, P.G.



Website Survey Tool Encourages Customer Feedback

  The Florida Geological Survey (FGS) utilizes the commercial customer survey administration tool “Survey Gizmo” to provide a web site survey form to our web visitors. Our survey asks questions regarding the content and user-friendliness of the site and provides for comments or specific geologic questions. The survey tool is presently provided through a subscription paid for by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP). The FGS Web Administrator may access the current survey results at any time through a password-protected login at the Survey Gizmo web page. In general, the survey results are reviewed monthly. 

Survey picture 

The FGS web site survey contains five questions:

1. On a scale of 1 to 5 with 1 being poor and 5 being excellent, did you find the FGS website easy to navigate?

2. Did you find what you were looking for? (Yes/No).

3. If not, what were you trying to find? (space provided for typed response).
4. If you would like a professional geologist to contact you about your question, please provide your name and phone number or email address in the space below (space provided)

5. What can we do to improve the web site to serve you better? (space provided).

  The responses to questions number 1 and 2 are, by necessity, evaluated in light of any comments offered verbally in questions 3, 4 and 5.  A large percentage of visitors start answering the survey, but do not go beyond these two questions.

  Responses to question 3 are used, when appropriate, to improve web site content or navigation links.

  Web visitors who provide contact information in Question 4 are contacted by phone or email. If the comment concerns web-related issues, the FGS web administrator replies and provides additional information as requested. If the question concerns publications, the FGS librarian is asked to respond. Other geology or hydrogeology questions are directed to the appropriate FGS staff specialists for response.

  The responses to question 5 are another opportunity to improve the usability of the FGS web site.  Visitors may either have ideas on a better way to present our information, or have suggestions on additional material to include. All comments are taken seriously and applied when appropriate, feasible, and according to the FDEP Web Standards.

Contact person/info: Frank Rupert, P.G.


STATEMAP Program Completes Mapping in Inverness Area                          


STATEMAP areasThe FGS STATEMAP program completed geologic mapping of the eastern portion of the USGS 30’ x 60’ Inverness quadrangle in August, 2011. This mapping, which was funded in part by the STATEMAP component of the National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program(NCGMP), was the result of an award by the USGS for$105,643. This represented the seventeenth straight year that the FGS received funding from the NCGMP for new geologic mapping in Florida.

Field mapping crews from the STATEMAP program spent several weeks in the area gathering new geologic data for the map. Additionally, the FGS Geological Data Acquisition Program drilled several hundred feet of new cores for the project. Each of several hundred wells and surface samples housed at the FGS Sample Repository were examined by staff geologists for geologic contact data and compiled along with field data and the new core data to generate the geologic map. The project produced a new geologic map, a geomorphology map, geologic cross sections (Open-File Map Series 102), and explanatory text (Open-File Report 96).  These reports are currently in final review and will be available via the FGS Library in April, 2012.

Contact person/info: Rick Green, P.G.


STATEMAP Program Receives Record Funding Amount

STATEMAP mapping areas

  The FGS STATEMAP program recently received a record $197,871 from the US Geological Survey for geologic mapping. Two areas for mapping are funded for 2011-2012:  the Tarpon Springs quadrangle, and the western portion of the Inverness quadrangle.

  The awarded funds, which represent an 87% increase over 2010-2011 funding, will be used for new geologic mapping of the USGS 30’ x 60 Inverness and Tarpon Springs quadrangles. This mapping, which was funded in part by the STATEMAP component of the National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program (NCGMP), represents the eighteenth consecutive year that the FGS has received funding from the NCGMP.

  The Tarpon Springs quadrangle was selected for detailed geologic mapping in part due to the 2010 “frost freeze” sinkhole events related to the Dover/Plant city area. This area is prone to sinkholes and a better understanding of the relationship between geology and groundwater is critical toward minimizing geologic hazards and enhancing water resource sustainability. The mapping project will be a cooperative effort between FGS staff and two private-sector consulting firms(SDII-Global andHSA Engineers and Scientists). Each of these companies has agreed to provide matching funds in the form of geologic data and staff time for use in generating the geologic map. The addition of these private sector contributions was instrumental in leveraging an additional $27,500 worth of grant from the USGS STATEMAP Program.

  The western portion of the Inverness quadrangle was also selected for geologic mapping during 2012-2012. The eastern portion of the Inverness quadrangle was mapped by the STATEMAP program in 2010-2011 (see additional article for more details). Geologic mapping for both projects will be completed in August of 2012 and will result in several new Open-File Map Series and Open File Reports. The maps and reports will be available through the FGS library in late 2012.          

Contact person/info: Rick Green, P.G.


STATEMAP Program Develops a New Mobile
GIS Platform for Geologic Mapping


Screenshot of ArcPad window The FGS STATEMAP program recently developed an innovative and inexpensive mobile GIS platform for geologic mapping. The system, which was primarily developed utilizing surplus and existing equipment, allows staff geologists to map from a moving vehicle more efficiently.

Prior to using this new method, staff geologists kept notes and recorded observations on a paper copy of a 1:24,000 scale quadrangle and then transcribed the data once they were back in the office. This required that the quadrangle be scanned, georeferenced in GIS, and then that the notes each be manually transcribed into the GIS project. This was a very time-consuming and inefficient process.

  Capturing data directly on a laptop in a GIS environment greatly increased accuracy by registering field points directly to a detailed digital map with standardized notations and symbology. This new system resulted in a five-fold increase in the amount of observations which were made by field geologists over the prior year’s project (using paper-based methods). In addition to the increase amount of data gathered, numerous days worth of office staff time were saved by capturing the data directly in the GIS environment and avoiding the need for labor-intensive transcription of data.

  The system was assembled primarily from existing and surplus resources and only required the purchase of minimal (<$100) additional equipment. The system, which is customized specifically for STATEMAP projects but can be adapted for other purposes, utilizes a vehicle-mounted laptop, GPS, ArcPad 10, and a special keyboard. This software and keyboard have been programmed with macro commands that allow field geologists to capture observations directly in a GIS environment. Up to 36 custom macros can be programmed into this keyboard and executed with a single keystroke, saving significant time for each observation. For example, a geologist is now able to record the presence of exposures with one click of the mouse. If they desire additional notes for the data point, it simply requires a “double-click” on the data point with a mouse and a form (shown above) opens for additional fields to be populated.

 The software also allows rapid switching between GIS coverages (aerials, property records, scanned historical quadrangles, etc) with a single keystroke. In addition to geologic data, the program captures streaming data from the GPS (tracklogs) and allows geologists to rapidly analyze records of travel for the end of the day. One use of these tracklogs is to plot the course of the vehicle as “speed over ground” which allows the geologists to assess whether or not an area needs to be covered more slowly or might need a second look.

  If you are interested in more details, a poster was presented at the Geological Society of America annual meeting in Minneapolis. The text for the abstract can be accessed here.

Contact person/info: Rick Green, P.G.


Florida State Mapping Advisory Committee (SMAC) Meeting Held 


STATEMAP committee at quarry

  The Florida State Mapping Advisory Committee (SMAC) met with the Florida Geological Survey (FGS) on October 7, 2011 to assess the current mapping projects and plans for future efforts. The meeting was held at the Florida Museum of Natural History in Gainesville, Florida. This committee meets annually in order to determine geological mapping priorities for the FGS STATEMAP program . Each year, the SMAC revises the long-range geologic mapping plan and decides which area(s) that the STATEMAP program will propose to the US Geological Survey for the following year’s mapping projects. Criteria for mapping prioritization include areas that: 1) are at highest risk for impacts to water supply, 2) have high probability of population increase or development, 3) have special geologic conditions (such as karst, mineral resources, or natural resources such as springs), and 4) where other State and Federal projects require more detailed geologic mapping to provide data for ongoing or planned studies.

  This year, a recommendation was made by SMAC members to propose the Daytona Beach 30’ x 60’ quadrangle for mapping in 2012-2013 because it meets all of the criteria listed above and the St. Johns River Water Management District is planning projects that could compliment the efforts of STATEMAP such as geophysical logging and drilling projects. Mapping of the selected areas also benefit several ongoing or planned projects. The SMAC also agreed to propose mapping of the Cedar Keys quadrangle in 2012-2013. The SMAC recognized that it is important to begin combining the prior STATEMAP deliverable maps into a standardized digital compilation for ease of use in GIS. As such, they recommended that the FGS compile older (AutoCAD) STATEMAP projects into a standardized GIS format.

  As in past meetings several of the attendees participated in a field trip to see examples of typical features that have been mapped. This not only provides opportunities to gain insight into specific geologic features but provides an opportunity for informal exchange between participants about the STATEMAP projects, ideas for project improvements, and an opportunity to consult with the many experts that are present. SMAC member Roger Portell from the Florida State Museum of Natural History led this year’s trip to a quarry near High Springs, Florida where participants could see the Bumpnose Formation, Ocala Limestone, and numerous karst features.

 Contact person/info: Rick Green, P.G.


Deep Coring Project Complete in Broward County with USGS Partners

FGS rig in Broward County

  Coring and monitor well construction for the Broward County Aquifer Storage and Recovery project was completed November 30th, 2011.  This cooperative project between FGS, the USGS and Broward County has resulted in a 1300’ monitoring well bored into the upper Floridan Aquifer and is currently meeting all SFWMD requirements.  FGS set up a 4” PVC liner to a depth of 680-700’ to ensure future sampling access through a potentially unstable portion of the Hawthorn Group.

  This core and well have already provided valuable insight into the geologic framework, water quality and aquifer characteristics of northeastern Broward County.  FGS and USGS are preparing rock chemistry data and lithologic logs to help assess water-rock reactions that may affect water quality and flow.    Future use of the well will include water quality sampling, flow testing and likely additional borehole characterization.

  This cooperative project between the FGS, USGS and Broward County was designed to investigate the feasibility of aquifer storage and recovery in north-eastern Broward County.  During the project, it was modified to extend the coring depth from 1200’ to 1300’ based on the geologic information provided by the 1200’ core. 

  FGS responsibility in this project was to drill the test hole, collect continuous core samples, construct the monitor well and conduct the geochemical analysis.  Geochemical analysis to be completed by April 30th, 2012, will consist of whole rock analyses of 15 samples, SEM/Microprobe analyses on 15 polished thin-sections, analysis and interpretation of the data, and report of the results.

Contact person/info: David Paul, P.G. or  Ken Campbell, P.G.


 Describing More Than a Mile of Core in Southwest Florida  


SWFWMD contract area

  Since 2005, the Florida Geological Survey (FGS) has been continuously contracted by the Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) to provide detailed lithologic descriptions of well samples provided by the SWFWMD’s Regional Observation and Monitor-well Program (ROMP).  ROMP installs and monitors a network of wells throughout the 16 county District, retrieving lithologic samples from those holes. From the lithologic samples, hydraulic properties are disseminated for the various aquifers and confining units penetrated by the wells. The crucial data gleaned from the detailed lithologic descriptions is used by the District to manage its vital water resources. The terms of contract require the FGS to provide up to 6,500 feet of detailed lithologic core sample descriptions and all wells are to be permanently archived in the State’s geologic well sample repository. As part of that contractual agreement, SWFWMD provides funding to help maintain and operate the State’s geologic well sample repository.

Contact person/info: Clint Kromhout, P.G.

Additional Links:

SWFWMD:  Regional Observation Monitor-well Program (ROMP)

FGS:  State Geologic Well Sample Repository


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