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Physical Components of a Drinking Water System  Drinking Water     Central District Highlights

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Physical Components of a Drinking Water System


Below are physical components common to small water systems.  They are presented in a layout that follows the flow of the water from source through distribution.



  • Most ground water in the central district is pulled from the Floridan Aquifer. 


Floridan Aquifer


  • Two common well construction methods.  On the left is an example of a vertical turbine type pump installation and on the right is an example of a submersible type pump installation. 


water system pumps- vertical turbine and submersible



Vertical Turbine


Well maintained vertical turbine well assembly.

(picture below)

well maintained vertical turbine pump

Poorly maintained vertical turbine well assembly
(picture below)

poorly maintained vertical turbine well assembly


Submersible Well Casing


Well Maintained Submersible Well Casing  

(picture below) well maintained submersible well casing

Poorly Maintained Submersible Well Casing  

(picture below)

poorly maintained submersible well casing



o    Sanitary Seal

  • At the top of all submersible well pumps is a sanitary seal through which piping and electrical cables are routed.  All bolts should be tightened and no visible gaps should be present.


sanitary seal for water well

Well Pad

  • The well pad must be a minimum of 6'x 6'x4' and concrete.

  • Must be free of debris and algae buildup.

  • The well pad should well maintained and free of cracks to avoid possible contamination.

A well maintained well pad free of leaves and debris.

(picture below)

well maintained well pad

A poorly maintained well pad with cracks and a large hole.

(picture below)

poorly maintained well pad



Well Discharge Piping (prior to water storage tanks)

  • Raw water sample tap:

    • Raw water samples should be taken from a smooth-nosed, downward opening tap located upstream of the check valve.

raw water sample tap

Check Valve

  • A device which prevents the flow of treated water back towards the well. 

  • This valve must be located after the raw water sample tap. 

  •  There are many different types of check valves, two commonly found examples are below:

bronze colored check valve silver colored check valve



Flow Meter

  • An in-line flow meter is very important as it allows you to track how much water your well produces. 

  • There may be multiple flow meters at different points throughout the treatment plant. 

  • It is important that they are calibrated in accordance with the manufacturer's specifications.


in-line flow meter

Water Treatment

  • There are many different types of water treatment processes that are used depending on raw water quality. 

  • All public water systems in the State of Florida are required to provide disinfection.  The preferred method of disinfection is chlorination.

  • Below are examples of chlorination pumps and chlorine storage containers.

chlorine pump chlorine storage container



Water Storage

  • There are several different types of storage tanks and each has unique applications. 

  • Storage tanks range in capacity from 20 gallons to more than 1,000,000 gallons.

  • Hydropneumatic storage tanks are the most common tank application for small systems. 

  • Also known as 'pressure tanks,' these tanks use a combination of air and water to provide sufficient disinfection contact time and to maintain water pressure throughout the distribution system.


drinking water pressure tanks





Drinking Water Contacts:   Compliance Assurance Contacts -- Permitting

Central District

Drinking Water Section

3319 Maguire Blvd., Suite 232

Orlando, Florida 32803-3767


All Purpose Fax: 850-412-0467

Dedicated MOR Fax: 850-412-0740

Incident Reporting and Chemical/Bacteriological Reporting Fax: 850-412-0482


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Last updated: May 24, 2011

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